John Marshall

Media Items
Personal Information
Born 
Wednesday, September 24, 1755
Died 
Monday, July 6, 1835
Childhood Location 
Virginia
Childhood Surroundings 
Virginia
Position 
Chief Justice
Seat 
1
Nominated By 
Adams, John
Commissioned on 
Saturday, January 31, 1801
Sworn In 
Wednesday, February 4, 1801
Left Office 
Monday, July 6, 1835
Reason For Leaving 
Death
Length of Service 
34 years, 5 months, 2 days
Home 
Virginia
John Marshall
The Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States (Artist: Rembrandt Peale)
Biography 

John Marshall was born in a log cabin on the Virginia frontier, the first of fifteen children. He was a participant in the Revolutionary War as a member of the 3d Virginia Regiment. He studied law briefly in 1780, and was admitted to practice the same year. He quickly established a successful career defending individuals against their pre-War British creditors.

Marshall served in Virginia's House of Delegates. He also participated in the state ratifying convention and spoke forcefully on behalf of the new constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation.

Marshall contemplated several offers to serve in the Washington and Adams administrations. He declined service as attorney general for Washington; he declined positions on the Supreme Court and as secretary of war under Adams. At Washington's direction, Marshall ran successfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives but his tenure there was brief. Adams offered Marshall the position of secretary of state, which Marshall accepted. When Ellsworth resigned as chief justice in 1800, Adams turned to the first chief justice, John Jay, who declined. Federalists urged Adams to promote associate justice William Paterson to the spot; Adams opted for Marshall.

Marshall's impact on American constitutional law is peerless. He served for more than 34 years (a record that few others have broken), he participated in more than 1000 decisions and authored over 500 opinions. As the single most important figure on constitutional law, Marshall's imprint can still be fathomed in the great issues of contemporary America. Other justices will surpass his single accomplishments, but no one will replace him as the Babe Ruth of the Supreme Court!

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Cite this Page
John Marshall. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 31 August 2014. <http://www.oyez.org/justices/john_marshall>.
John Marshall, The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, http://www.oyez.org/justices/john_marshall (last visited August 31, 2014).
"John Marshall," The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, accessed August 31, 2014, http://www.oyez.org/justices/john_marshall.